A Day in Archaeology: the CBA’s Digital Festival of Archaeology

A Day in Archaeology twitter card people

Have you ever wondered what archaeologists really do?  Do they just dig or are there other aspects to their work? A Day in Archaeology showcases “a day in the life” of archaeologists from all over the UK. It also explores pathways into the profession and, this year, the impact of the C-19 pandemic on individuals and organisations. The day is part of the Council for British Archaeology’s ‘Festival of Archaeology‘ and one of our Director’s, Jo, happens to work for them, so she has put together a blog post focusing on her time with the BRP and the impact C-19 has had on the project.

You can read the blog here: Jo’s ‘A Day in Archaeology’ Blog 

Update on the off season excavation in Trench 3

It’s been a busy week on site, so we thought it was time for a little update on what’s been happening.

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Excavation underway in Trench 3

Iron age or Romano-British pottery

One of the most notable finds this week came out of the north-west corner where Constance has been working. Towards the end of last week, she uncovered a flagstone surface which appears to be the base of a post pad. Just to the south of this we found some sizeable pieces of Iron Age or Romano-British pot sherds. What stands out about this pot is that on the base you can see the wood grain of the surface it was shaped on.

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Pottery of Iron Age or Romano-British date from the north of the trench

Excavating some of the cobbles

As part of our plan for this off season excavation we are compiling a north to south section that will run the length of the trench and allow us to her lots of relationships between different parts of the site. As part of this section we’ve started taking off a 2-metre strip of the cobbled surface, this will be the first time we get a decent look at what is happening underneath (currently, it’s just more cobbles!).

Tom has finished his sondage

In the north area of the trench we have completely excavated a 2m x 1m sondage (sounding trench) down to bedrock. This small trench has provided us with a look at some of the earliest archaeology within the trench, from the early medieval all the way down to the prehistoric. We’ve had some interesting finds come out of this area that include Samian ware, Iron Age or Romano-British pottery, a bent coin and even a broken copper ring! We have been able to track how the bedrock at this end of the trench forms the side of the cleft in which Trench 3 sits and how steeply the bedrock drops off. The other side of the rock cleft lies beyond the Armstrong Museum and rises up to carry the cross wall that divided the West and East Wards of the castle.

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Tom’s sondage extending from the deep latrine pit

Fresh from the Trench: Week 2

At the beginning of the week, we started cutting back an old section on the western wall of the trench just north of the mortar mixer (southwest of trench). We excavated an area adjacent to Brian Hope-Taylor’s trench that marks the southwest of our trench. The area was partially overgrown near the old baulk and briefly was home to some trench stairs. On the way down to Brian Hope-Taylor’s upper pavement, we found two objects representing a few thousand years of material culture: medieval scissors and a prehistoric flint blade.

Dark grey flint blade.

Late Neolithic flint blade.

This flint is likely from the Late Neolithic due to its shape and the evidence along the edge and face that show how it was retouched. Flint is often found within chalk or limestone deposits, so where lakes and rivers once stood hundreds of millions of years ago that became sedimentary rock. Some scholars believe that human migration in search of resources may not just have been for flora and fauna, but also the presence of stone fit for tool-making. The chalk ridge in southeastern England once connected to northern France and exploring early humans might have sought out these areas as worthy sites to exploit. What some call the “Stone Age” can more specifically been divided into the Palaeolithic, Mesolithic, and Neolithic, which mean Old, Middle, and New Stone Age respectively. The Neolithic in Britain spans roughly 4000-2500BC, and is marked by specific stone tool types, megalithic construction, and the advent of farming. Flint-knapping is the process of making tools out of flint or chert and involves a hammerstone striking off flakes to shape a usable blade or flattened point.

Flint is extremely sharp, even microscopically so, which has led to an interesting push by some medical professionals to switch to flint blades because of their sharpness and the lesser likelihood of spreading germs trapped on their surface (whereas a surgical steel scalpel under a microscope will have a visibly rounded edge, and imperfections on the surface could spread infection). Unfortunately, there is not really a major flint-knapping industry in place to produce medical grade blades; the community of contemporary skilled flint-knappers often include traditional indigenous craftsmen, experimental archaeologists, and re-enactors/living history interpreters.

In addition to cutting and scraping, flint creates sparks when struck by steel. This is perfect for starting campfires or for a particular generation of firearms known as flintlocks. In colonial American contexts such as southeastern Virginia in the 1770s, we can examine gun flints from the Revolutionary War and reasonably deduce which fighting faction used the flint in question: the British used grey flints and only squared half while rounding the other, the French used square orange flints which could be used in either direction, and the Americans used British-sourced flints but often cut in the French style.

For these reasons, flint is therefore one of the most influential stones in human history, and it often doesn’t really get its due!

New article from the Bradford Kaims published in the Archaeological Journal

At the start of this year we were happy to see the publication of the first of a raft of new articles based on the Bradford Kaims site, which the BRP have been excavating since 2010. This article, Assessing the contribution of integrated geoarchaeological approaches to understand the formation and function of burnt mounds: the example of Hoppenwood Bank, North Northumberland, focusses on how we used environmental science to unravel how Mound 1 at the Bradford Kaims was formed. The article includes some methodological consideration on the use of phytoliths for understanding fuel use (spoiler, it didn’t work) but largely deals with the micromorphological record, which was far more useful. As this research came off the back of Tom Gardner’s MSc results and includes some of his PhD results, we must thank generous funding from the Carnegie Trust and the Moray Endowment Fund which supported Tom’s work, as well as the funders of the Bradford Kaims; the British Academy, the Society of Antiquaries of London, the Royal Archaeological Institute, and the Duke of Northumberland.

You can read the article for more details here, and if you can’t access it, then email us or comment on our Facebook page with a request, and Tom can send along the PDF.

Gardner, T.H., 2019, Assessing the contribution of integrated geoarchaeological approaches to understand the formation and function of burnt mounds: the example of Hoppenwood Bank, North Northumberland, Archaeological Journal, 176, pp. 51-83.

End of the Season at the Bradford Kaims Trench 42

The focus of our excavations on the south-side the Bradford Kaims in the 2017 season have been our investigations of Trench 42, located on the promontory of glacial sediments which juts out into the fenland. Trench 42 was first opened in 2012 and again 2016, during last year’s very wet season. It is sited on higher ground and provided us with an opportunity to continue excavating when the rest of the site was flooded.

Previous excavations uncovered an extensive but relatively thin burnt mound deposit (4203), which has been provisionally dated to the Early Bronze Age. The surface beneath the burnt mound (4217) was cut by numerous negative features, notably a large roughly rectangular cut, filled with burnt material. This cut feature [4214] is headed at one end by a rectangular limestone slab that has had a hole drilled through the middle and is associated with four post-holes, located at each corner of the feature. The working hypothesis is that this cut feature was a firing pit, although its exact function remains unknown. Our excavations on the south-side for this season centred around this possible fire pit.

The first week of excavation was spent re-opening Trench 42 to reveal the fire pit, and to help with this the trench was subsequently extended five meters to the north-west, with the intention of revealing any features associated with the pit. After the turf was removed we immediately came down onto the remainder of the large burnt mound deposit (4203) that overlies [4214], which extended across the entirety of the extension.

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Students and volunteers extending T42 and exposing the blackened Bronze Age burnt mound deposits (4203).

The extension was cleaned, photographed, and planned to record the extent of the burnt mound. We then removed and sampled the burnt mound deposit for radiocarbon dating and plant macrofossil identification, which will hopefully provide secure dating evidence for the activity in this area of the Bradford Kaims site, and shed light upon fuel-use strategies associated with the burnt mound.

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Students removing the burnt mound material in a sampling grid, exposing the subsoils beneath it. The fire-pit can be seen as the upright stone to the extreme right of the image.

At the end of week three we extended the trench by another 3m towards the south-east where no burnt mound underlay the topsoil. Upon doing this, we came straight down to a sand based prehistoric land surface (4217), into which the burning pit had been cut and, and extended across the entirety of Trench 42. On top of this context we found various pieces of worked and unworked flint. Notably, this included a beautiful triangularly shaped weapon head (which has been described in a previous blog).

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EnterStudents and staff extending T42 to the south-east in poor weather, showing the consolidated fire pit in the centre of the image, cut into the (wet!) sand-based prehistoric land surface. a caption

In the following cleaning of the trench we identified multiple negative features that may be connected to the fire pit and the wider use of the area. Among them are at least three possible post holes which seem to form a right angle near the northern corner of the fire pit and could be part of a built structure. Further investigations were interrupted by the end of the season so we have not yet been able to finalise our full interpretations. For now, the site is interpreted as a complex series of burnt mound deposits focussed around a large fire pit, with a previous structure present in the area, all sitting upon a post-glacial land surface which has been a site for multiple episodes of flint working and use. We hope to come back in future and get another chance to discover the wider function of the area, and to provide a more holistic picture of the prehistoric activity that once occurred on the promontory at the Bradford Kaims.

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Volunteers Barbara and Trina excavating a slot (in better weather) through the basal burnt mound deposits onto the prehistoric land surface, encountering numerous cut features.

In addition to this excavation, a geophysical survey and an archaeomagnetic dating study were conducted in the area of the promontory. The results of the geophysical survey seemed to point out some areas of interest. Time permitting, only one of these was test-pitted during the final weeks of the season and turned out sadly to be the cut of a Victorian drain pipe. However, this survey also showed the extent of the burnt mound exposed in Trench 42 as a spread reaching 20m in diameter, as well as identifying numerous smaller anomalies believed to be more burnt mound deposits and other features in the area. When we return to Trench 42, we will also be investigating some of these features, and will keep you posted on our blog!

Charlie Kerwin, Trench Supervisor and University of Nottingham, and Franzi Leja, Assistant Supervisor and University of Bamberg.

Worked Flint from Trench 42 at the Bradford Kaims

Franzi Leja – Assistant Supervisor and the University of Bamberg, Germany

During this season Trench 42, situated on the south-side of the Bradford Kaims excavation area, was extended to measure at 13 m by 5 m, intended to reveal potential structures related to a large pit and the post holes surrounding it in the centre of the trench, exposed in the 2016 season. Unlike in the western half of the trench, there was no burnt mound underneath the topsoil, which came straight down to the prehistoric land surface into which the trough and the other features were cut. In the south-east-corner, a modern horse-shoe was discovered in the topsoil, but shortly after this, sitting on top of the light and yellowish sand based land-surface that we were aiming for, a large worked flint point was discovered.

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It is triangular in shape with the two retouched sides being slightly convex. They have been knapped and retouched, with the bulb of percussion at the tapered end. As the flint is so thick, it suggests that the currently tapered end is in fact the base, with the point having snapped off leading to the discard of the tool. Our first assumption was that this was an arrow head, but the thickness and length of the tool, when complete, suggests it could be something like a spear head. Our provisional dating for the site suggests that this is a Bronze Age tool, but we wait for specialist analysis to further prove this.

Beyond this initial evaluation, the discovery of the flint lends credence to the idea that the land-surface which we came down upon is contemporary with, and associated to, the burnt mound in this area, and that the artefact scatter which also contained flint working debris, suggests an associated activity going on in the periphery of the burnt mound.

Geomorphological Survey at the Bradford Kaims

 Anna Finneran, Coring Supervisor and PhD Candidate, University of Durham

In 2017 the Kaims coring team has benefitted from many dry days, and persevered through some soaking days. Here’s a quick update on the accomplishments of Dr. Richard Tipping and field school students this season:

The Bradford Kaims branch of the BRP since 2010 has conducted a landscape-scale interdisciplinary investigation of a large fenland associated with our archaeological sites.  Excavations have uncovered multiple burnt mounds, structural remains, and artefacts.  Human activity spans at least the Mesolithic through the Bronze Age.  The features and material culture represent an industrial area.  Conspicuous in its absence, however, is evidence for domestic activity in the landscape. In contrast, palaeoenvironmental reconstructions present a rich aquatic environment, characterised by two large lakes throughout the Holocene and populated with unique flora and fauna, potentially attractive for long-term habitation.  The landscape surveys this season have sought to look beyond the Neolithic and Bronze Age by incorporating geomorphology, geophysics, soil micromorphology, and excavation to describe both the natural landscape and the human activity throughout the Holocene.

The main aim of the 2017 season in terms of this geomorphological mapping was coring and sediment description at locations known to contain or likely to contain layers of colluvial accumulation (or slopewash). Colluvial accumulation would result from episodes of erosion on slopes descending towards the fenland basin. Geomorphological analyses from previous seasons concluded that no natural sediment erosion occurred on steep slopes around the fenland. Any erosion on gentler slopes may then be ascribed to archaeological, and potentially agricultural, activity.

The coring team conducted coring transects across the landscape, inserting a metal tube (or sediment core) into the soils and sediments of the fenland and its surrounds, to chart the different types and depths of material.  We successfully identified layers of colluvium within layers of peat, representing episodes of agricultural destabilisation of the slopes, at numerous points. Following reconnaissance, five locations were selected for a combination of analyses including soil micromorphology and pOSL analysis (see Becky Scott’s blog in a few days for more detail on this!).

Another aim of the geomorphological investigations in 2017 was working in tandem with Graeme Attwood’s magnetometry survey to define buried anomalies. Coring and sediment description preceded excavation of 1 x 1m test pits over the most promising anomalies. The anomalies to the NW of Trench 6 proved to be burnt mounds, as hoped. However, the anomalies in the form of two parallel lines between Trenches 11 and 9 were found to be ditches for Victorian age drainage pipes.

Richard

Despite our pipe-related set-backs, one lost (but later retrieved) core, and numerous small injuries and sprains, the coring team successfully completed our aims for this season with positive and encouraging results for the future. Next season we hope to continue to investigate the natural landscape and the human impact upon the environment throughout the Holocene, and hopefully use the analyses of colluvial deposits and the dating material provided by the fenland to gain a more in-depth understanding of how people across the Bronze Age and Iron Age influenced their landscape.

Introducing the 2017 Bradford Kaims Staff

Paul Gething – Site Director

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I’m Paul. I believe that good PPE is the key to good excavation.

Post-script by Tom Gardner; Other than being flippant in return emails, Paul Gething is from Yorkshire, has been a professional archaeologist for many decades, and directs our excavations with suitable aplomb and style. When not excavating, Paul is a school governor and magistrate, as well as a writer who has published widely upon the medieval period and the history of Northumbria. He likes ale and fun & games.

Tom Gardner – Project Officer

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Hi. I’m Tom, and I’m from Glasgow in Scotland. I am a PhD student in Geoarchaeology at the University of Edinburgh. I have been working at the Bradford Kaims for 6 years, after coming as a student in 2012. What I love most about the project is the camaraderie between staff and students on site, and in our post-work social scene. I am in charge of overseeing the archaeological investigations at the Kaims, and this allows me to get stuck in to the soil science, as is my want. Outside of work, I enjoy sitting around in the campsite having a quiet drink, and participating in the many pub quizzes of Belford.

Rachel Brewer – Project Manager

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Hello, everyone, I’m Rachel Brewer and I’m from Illinois, U.S.A.  After participating as a student in 2014 and working as an assistant supervisor in 2016, I’m excited to be back with the Bradford Kaims Project in the role of Project Manager.  I have a B.A. in History from Southern Illinois University and an M.A. in Archaeology from Cardiff University, Wales.  I’m particularly interested in the Anglo-Saxons and early medieval pottery, but I’ve enjoyed the excavation opportunities, work environment and people at the BRP so much that I keep returning! Back home I work as a secondary English teacher, but I love being involved in fieldwork during the summer holidays. I look forward to meeting and working with all of you!

Rachel Moss – Trench 6 Supervisor

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I’m Rachel – otherwise known as ‘Moss’ – and I will be returning to the Bradford Kaims this year as a supervisor. I first started excavating at the Kaims as a student in 2014 and have been coming back ever since. I have spent most of my time at the site in Trench 6 and can’t wait to discover more of its secrets this year. I also love the experimental archaeology we carry out every season, from making pottery to brewing prehistoric beer.

I am currently studying for my undergraduate degree in archaeology from the University of Edinburgh. In my spare time I enjoy reading, good food, travel, and trips to St Mary’s to watch Southampton FC whenever I’m at home down south.

I can’t wait to get back for the start of this season and meet all the students and community volunteers coming to join us!

Anna Finneran – Coring Supervisor

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Hi, I’m Anna and I’m from Maryland. I completed a BA and MA at Durham University and this autumn I am returning to Durham to begin a PhD. I first joined the BRP as a student in 2014. This year I will be assisting Dr. Richard Tipping.

Charlie Kerwin – Trench 42 Supervisor

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I’m Charlie and I have just moved back home to London after finishing my undergraduate degree in BSc Archaeology at the University of Nottingham. This will be my fourth year at the BRP, I first came to the BRP as a student in 2014 and became a staff member in 2016 when I undertook the role of Assistant Supervisor on the South Side of the Bradford Kaims. I’m excited to be returning this year as Supervisor of the South Side. In my academic studies my main interest was not actually within prehistoric archaeology, rather they lay within gender archaeology and the Anglo-Saxon and Medieval periods. However, the incredible preservation offered by the wetland conditions at the Bradford Kaims immediately caught my interest and has kept me coming back. Although I am looking forward to overseeing the South Side and I am keenly anticipating what archaeological features will be uncovered during this season’s excavations, it is really the people that have made me return year after year. I’m always thrilled to get to see and work with the great team at the Kaims each season and I am also looking forward to getting to know all the new people who will be visiting the project.

After this season, I’m hoping to continue my education. However, I am leaving the field of Archaeology (with some regret) to pursue an MSc in Development Studies at SOAS University of London.

Franzi Leja – Trench 42 Assistant Supervisor

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In my fourth year of returning to this amazing project, I once again put my studies in Bamberg, Germany to a little rest and look forward to the experiences awaiting me and everyone attending the BRP. At my home university I currently work at the department of Geoarchaeology analysing charcoal and am writing my bachelor thesis about vegetation reconstruction. My role in this year’s season will be the assistant supervisor to Trench 9 and Trench 11 at the Bradford Kaims. Our plans and hopes for 2017, including new survey methods, got me extra excited and I cannot wait to reunite with old friends and meet new ones!

Katie Walker – Trench 6 Assistant Supervisor

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I am Katie, and I am from Inverness. I am currently finishing my 3rd year at the university of Edinburgh. This year I am an assistant supervisor in Trench 6 at the Bradford Kaims. I am most looking forward to the mighty craic!

Becky Scott- Assistant Supervisor

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I’m Becky and I will be returning to the Kaims this year as an Assistant Supervisor because I enjoyed my time here so much in 2015! I have an undergraduate degree in Environmental Science and have recently finished an MSc in Environmental Archaeology at the University of Reading where I will be starting my PhD in September. My main interests are Palaeolithic (particularly Lower Paleolithic) and Mesolithic environments, and the use of terrestrial carbonates in archaeology.  I hope you enjoy this photo of me in my element on the coast of Wales looking for Mesolithic footprints. Hopefully the weather at the Kaims will be slightly better than this…

Cuthbert – Dog

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I am Cuthbert. I joined the team in 2015. I’m a dog and I’m friendly but quite slobbery. My favourite type of site is one with a ball.

Bradford Kaims 2015 Interim Report Released

Since the end of the 2016 season we have been working hard to process and assess the material which we extracted from the Bradford Kaims, as well as dispersing to work on our other projects. However, we had a wee bit of catching up to do on the 2015 season, in the form of finalising our interim report. We usually try to get the interim reports done prior to the beginning of the next season, as we managed with our 2013 and 2014 season reports, but time ran away with us this year. However, we can now safely say that the 2015 interim report from the Bradford Kaims is available, open access and on our website!

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Trench 6 under investigation in 2015

I shows the highlights and the less glamorous sides of our 2015 scheme of investigation, and covers all the excavation which took place during out two month season, so please give it a look and let us know what you think!

Evidently it is a slightly slimmed down version of our activities, the full details of which will be presented in our end-of evaluation site monograph. However, it should provide details of our exciting finds, such as the Neolithic timber platform in Trench 6, the timber laid working area in Trench 11, and the stake-built building in Trench 9!

Now, a bit of time off to work on other projects, such as the exciting Blythe Beach work, and then the beginning of the 2016 interim report!

Tom Gardner

End of Season Reflections, Southern area at the Bradford Kaims

 With a hive of activity happening in this area at the conclusion of season 2015, the South trenches looked to hit the ground running again in 2016. Trench 9 was re-opened once again, to finish off the investigations started in 2014, while two new trenches were established with one being for the purpose of resolving the archaeological questions that had risen from two previous trenches in the Southern area, and the other as part of an investigation into the other side of the wetland, on the dry ground. Trench 14, which was opened over Trench 8 (season 2013) and Trench 11 (2015 season) with the hope of establishing the relationship between in the stone mound found in T8 and the large timbers found in T11. The other trench opened in the south area, was Trench 15, which was opened in the second half of the season to establish the limit of archaeology in the southern area. Despite a horribly wet start to the season, we still managed to gather plenty of information about this area of the site from these trenches.

 

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Trench 14 (foreground) and Trench 9 (background) during the 2016 season

 

TRENCH 9

Unfortunately for us, season 2016 was not a nice one for Trench 9. After two years of weird and wonderful features and finds from the trench that lay on the edge of the wetland’s tidal area, this year, the weather won out. Despite getting the trench opened (with some changes in dimensions to accommodate the need to investigate specific features), cleaned and ready to be excavated again in the first week, the rains came and came and came, turning the trench into a pond, a lake and finally a dam. This meant that it was never plausible to excavate in dry conditions until the last fortnight of the season.

 

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Trench 9 after the heavy rains

With the end of the 2015 season providing us with a wealth of things to look at in Trench 9 this year, sadly, many of them could not be investigated. The north-western corner stayed under water the entire time, meaning our brushwood platform and Neolithic post-hole settings could not be looked at further. Instead we targeted central area where we had the sweat lodge, hearth and Neolithic plank, with the latter being the first area of investigation. With the new extension of the trench, 1m further into the wetland, we were hoping to find the plank extending further, with more stake-holes running parallel with it to provide hope on our walk-way theory. Instead, the wood only extended a further 20cm with a multitude of stake-hole present at its extent, but with no real alignment in their arrangement. We only had time to photograph, plan and record these new findings before the season finished, but we no longer believe the plank to be part of a walkway and so further investigation may be undertaken in this area in the future.

Another feature we looked at this season was our prehistoric sweat lodge. Once cleaned and photographed again, a quarter-section of the circular feature was excavated down to natural, with the hope of finding floor deposits and artefactual material associated with the feature on the way down. Sadly, it was to no avail, and so the only dating we can do for this feature is based on its position in the stratigraphy. The Mesolithic hearth, however, yielded some further evidence of its purpose and age, with an additional two pieces of worked chert discovered during an environmental sampling of the feature. The hearth was not found to be very deep, although the weather in the early part of the season had scoured away a significant amount of the original feature, despite our best efforts to minimise the rain’s impact, but measured ~1m in diameter. We still believe that the hearth and the sweat lodge are contemporary with each other as they both sit on the same level in the stratigraphic sequence of the trench, but as for the other areas of interest in Trench 9, we can’t make further comments as we simply didn’t get a chance to investigate them this season due to the weather conditions.

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Excavation of the hearth (foreground) and sweat lodge (background) in Trench 9

 

It is still unclear as to what will happen with Trench 9 in the future at the Kaims. In terms of evaluating what archaeology was present in this area of the wetland margins, we have done so with aplomb. There is still firm belief that the area where Trench 9 lies, may be connected to the area where the new Trench 14 is located, and so it may be opened for one final time to conduct a large evaluation between the two trenches.

TRENCH 14

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Volunteer Tim (foreground) and students Jack (middle) and Carrington (back) digging out the extension.

When we last visited Trench 14, we had a couple of goals in mind. One goal was to expand the quarter section to provide a fresh understanding of the stratigraphic sequence of the stone mound, brushwood platform and peat layer. Our other goal was to expand north, to an area that we expected Trench 11’s paleochannel to continue through. We accomplished both goals, first expanding the quarter section and excavating down to a depth of over one metre below the surface, into the peat layer. We removed the layer of brushwood and we were very excited to discover large timber “planks” lying parallel to each other. This discovery was made the second to last week of the season, so great care was taken to record the planks in detail: photographs, plans and Timber Recording sheets in preparation for next year’s field season. We hope to continue in T14 and to discover if there are more timber planks underneath the stone mound and in the surrounding area.

 

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First timber revealed in the quarter-section.

As our attention turned to expanding into the expected paleochannel area, we were happy to discover that it does indeed continue and the layers of sand in T14 are similar to the layers of sand found in T11 last year. Minimal excavation was carried out on the channel, but hopefully next year more excavations can be conducted. One interesting discovery made during excavation of the quarter section (an area abutting where we expected to find the paleochannel) was a layer of sand different than what was found in the feature last year. This sand had a definitive reddish hue to it, whereas the sand found last year in T11 had a yellowish-brown hue. The reddish sand was recorded thoroughly at the end of this field season and will probably come into play next year as excavations continue in this exciting area of the Bradford Kaims.

 

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Sand variations in the western trench wall of the extension.

TRENCH 15

Situated alongside Winlaw Burn, and to the very west of our area of investigation in Embleton’s Bog, we opened up Trench 15. The purpose of this trench was to establish whether we had any archaeological evidence as far west of our site as this, and to investigate an anomaly on a LIDAR survey of the Kaims area. Being so close to the burn, and with the knowledge that the burn was constantly cleaned out during the Victorian period, we quickly determined that the anomaly was just a large dump of upcast from the this. Some very modern finds were also evidence of this. This still didn’t answer our question of archaeological limit, and so we carried down further, hoping to find the same prehistoric ground surface that has been found across the site in Trenches 7, 9, 42 and 55.

Despite several sterile layers of clay in the 2m x 1m trench, we finally reached what we believed to be our target surface ~1m below the top of the trench. Although no features in this trench, we did manage to find a solitary piece of worked flint at the very bottom of our sequence, indicating that we do indeed have evidence of human occupation as far west as this on our site. We may come back to this area in future seasons to search for further archaeological evidence, but for now we need to keep searching for the western limit of archaeological potential at the Bradford Kaims.

 

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Trench 15 (foreground) in relation to Trench 9 (background)

On behalf of myself, Becky Rutherford (Trench 14 Supervisor), Charlie Kerwin (Assistant Supervisor) and Ian Boyd (Assistant Supervisor) we would like to thank all the staff, students and volunteers that have worked with us in the 2016 season. Without your eagerness to listen and learn about archaeology, and your enthusiasm to help us reach our research goals, we would not have been able to learn as much as we did about this area of the Bradford Kaims this year. Thank you to all, and we hope to see you again next year.

 

Tom Lally (Project Officer)