Archaeomagnetic Studies at the Bradford Kaims

Archmag

Sam Harris, Doctoral Research Student – University of Bradford

Firstly, it is purely coincidental that I study in Bradford (West Yorkshire) and am coming to take samples at the Bradford Kaims. As an archaeomagnetist, and we are pretty few and far between, it is always amazing the variety of sites that you get to see and work on. Having parachuted into the Bradford Kaims trenches for the second time, this site is no exception in its wonder. Placed at the edge of a fen, the variety of soil and sediment types on site is impressive! This offers the perfect opportunity for archaeomagnetic studies.

For those that aren’t quite sure what this odd science (magic) is, you are welcome to peruse my website, which is listed at the end of this blog post, for some answers. Simply put, the Earth has a magnetic field which varies over space and time. A record of the past geomagnetic field can be found in the in situ remains of hearths, furnaces, or other anthropogenically fired features that we as archaeologist excavate on a regular basis. Archaeomagnetic studies seek to improve our knowledge of past geomagnetic field changes through the analysis of this material. Why though, I hear you ask…

This is because we can use the knowledge of geomagnetic fluctuations over time to conduct archaeomagnetic dating and gain an idea of the last time that some fired archaeological features were heated. Having a dating method which directly relates to an anthropogenic activity, rather than to the end of an organism’s carbon absorption for example, is a powerful tool for the archaeologist.

Archaeomagnetic dating was first attempted at the Bradford Kaims in 2011. While the study was successful and the date recovered for a fired hearth feature in Trench 6 (c.4350 cal.BC) was considered accurate given other artefactual dating evidence for the site, newly acquired radiocarbon dating evidence suggests that the calibration methods used for the archaeomagnetic dates produced erroneous results. This was due to the use of an experimental and alternative calibration model from outside the UK, as the current UK calibration model does not stretch back into the Bronze Age or before. This previous study, and others since, have identified the need for further work to be undertaken. This is where me and my PhD come in! My main aim is to improve our understanding of geomagnetic field change during prehistoric periods, but particularly the Neolithic.

At the Bradford Kaims this season, I sampled two features associated with the Bronze Age burnt mounds, both of them interpreted as fire pits containing fired stones, burnt sediments, ash, and charcoal. These features will provide good radiocarbon dating records, alongside the archaeomagnetic signatures for the fired subsoils within and below them.

Thanks to the Bamburgh Research Project’s excellent radiocarbon dating programme at the Bradford Kaims, the fired archaeological features that I can archaeomagnetically study will have independent dates associated with them. By building up a number of well-dated features in this way, a new calibration curve for the UK can be created, with the Bradford Kaims being a central case study in this process. Through the combined use of radiocarbon dating and archaeomagnetic dating on prehistoric sites like the Bradford Kaims, we can gain a more nuanced understanding of their chronologies.

Sam’s website can be viewed at; www.neolithicarchaeomagnetism.weebly.com

Sam’s Twitter can be viewed at; @Archaeomagnetic

Looking back at this seasons work in Trench 1

When we set out at the start of the season we were fairly confident that this would be the last year of excavation in Trench 1. There seemed only a limited number of questions left to be answered and since we had exposed boulder clay and bedrock over the full area of the trench at the end of last season, it’s not as if there was much more to dig. Trench 1 always seems to have more secrets to reveal though, so the appearance of more post-holes and small features, due to slow weathering, and the difficulty of answering one of our last research goals, frustrated us in the end. I can’t say I am sad to have a little more to do next year.

We started the year with two outstanding research goals. The first was to complete the investigation of the corn-drying kiln (a kiln or oven used to dry damp cereal for use or storage) in the north-west corner of the trench and the second was to further investigate the timber defensive rampart leading to St Oswald’s gate and also to see if we could also trace evidence of the rampart along the northern limit of the perimeter of the site. It presence here had long been speculated on but never proved.

The kiln has been a fascinating feature, constructed from fired clay set around laths of timber that would have at one point supported a domed top, fragments of which we find broken and forming a substantial part of the fill of the bowl. It also contained a considerable quantity of charred cereal grain that will help us learn a little more about the diet of the inhabitants. The kiln was likely used to dry damp grain on its way into the fortress for long term storage. This would explain its location close to the entrance at St Oswald’s Gate. At the moment we have a series of potential dates for the kiln based on archaeomagnetic samples. The most likely period of its use is the late Anglo-Saxon period, but a radiocarbon date will be needed to confirm this.

Kilndouble

The kiln at the start of the season (left) and following complete excavation (right)

One aspect that has intrigued us about the kiln for a while is that it underlies the earliest phase of high medieval wall, which is probably 12th century in date. The edge of the rock plateau is close by so when the kiln was in use there must either have been a much thinner stone wall or no defensive feature at all, given that a timber rampart would have been at a severe risk of burning down if right next to a kiln. We know that we have at least two phases of timber defence on the west side and that the kiln cuts and post-dates the latest of these. This summer we have further investigated this, excavating more of the later rubble foundation for a timber sill beam to reveal a series of post-holes beneath it. On the same alignment. The post-holes are spaced about 0.5m apart and, like the sill beam, almost certainly represent the inner face of a box rampart.

rampart

The norther part of the stone rubble rampart foundation excavated to reveal two earlier post-holes that formed an earlier phase of the feature

We have long speculated that the rampart likely continued around the fortress perimeter on the north side and have even seen what appeared to be a linear formed from a stony clay extending in the right place and on the right alignment for this. We began the excavation of a slop through the boulder clay across the trench to try and investigate this idea. We assumed that if the spread was to represent the former fill of a timber rampart then we would have re-deposited boulder clay on a boulder clay surface that had not been disturbed. The theory seemed reasonable but proving it has turned out to be much harder than thought. The boulder clay turns out to be more variable and mixed than we thought from its surface and, not at all surprisingly, hard to dig! By the end of the season we had a number of potential post-holes, a series of enigmatic patches of apparently burnt clay and no clear buried surface. Unable to make firm conclusion just what this evidence means, we will be conducting a limited amount of further excavation next year. Hopefully we will be able to get some secure answers, but if not then at least we will have done everything we could to reveal this last secret.

boulder clay

Trench 1 looking west with our sondage into the boulder clay marked by the ranging rod. Lots of confusion at the north end but no certainlty about just what we are excavating yet!

 

Ourpress release on this season’s discoveries

Spectacular And Rare Discovery At Bradford Kaims Archaeological Wetland Site

Archaeologists working on the Bradford Kaims Wetland Heritage Project in north Northumberland, a community archaeology project supported by the Heritage Lottery Fund and English Heritage, have unearthed a series of hugely significant archaeological monuments forming a complex prehistoric landscape.

The latest season of work has revealed the presence of at least 12 ‘burnt mounds’ and four small artificial islands. Finds include prehistoric worked flint and pottery, included Carinated Bowl an extremely early prehistoric pottery. The most spectacular find of the excavation is a timber paddle that could date back some 6,000 years to the very beginning of the Neolithic period, the time of the first farmers.

Paul Gething, Project Director said:

This find is of national and potentially international significance and is extremely rare as the first such find of this date identified in Europe. The paddle is currently in cold storage pending what we hope will be extensive further stages of research and conservation.”

The Bradford Kaims evaluations also doubles the known examples of burnt mounds in the region. Prehistoric burnt mounds are large piles of burnt stones with a wide variety of possible uses that range from simple cooking through to early brewing, sweat lodges, canoe building or early metal extraction.

The Bradford Kaims T6 site is unique because it pre-dates any previous known burnt mound by over a thousand years. Burnt mounds are well known across the majority of Britain and Ireland but there were less than a dozen known in Northumberland prior to this exciting discovery.

The site has a rich diversity of artefacts and these are greatly enhanced by the presence of very rare organic finds, preserved due to the waterlogged nature of several areas. There is a huge amount of wood preserved just as it was thousands of years after being laid on the ground.

Ends.

Notes to Editors

The Bradford Kaims Wetland Heritage Project was established in 2010, by the Bamburgh Research Project with funding support from the Your Heritage scheme of the Heritage Lottery Fundand the English Heritage regional Fund, to study an extensive series of former lakes, formed in the post-glacial period, some 10,000 years ago, in northeast Northumberland.

The lakes in-filled over thousands of years and are now, in the main, areas of intermittently wet pasture. Previous seasons of work had identified two burnt mounds and mapped some of the extensive peat deposit within the former lakes.

This year, however, the dry summer has reduced the water table sufficiently to allow a much more detailed investigation of the wetland margins. This has paid dividends revealing an extensive brushwood timber platform, extending from one of the mounds into the water, and it is from the surface of this structure that the paddle was recovered.

Using money raised through the National Lottery, the Heritage Lottery Fund (HLF) aims to make a lasting difference for heritage, people and communities across the UK and help build a resiliant heritage economy. From museums, parks and historic places to archaeology, natural and cultural traditions, we invest in every part of our diverse heritage. HLF supported over 35,000 projects with more than £5.5 billion across the UK. http://www.hlf.org.uk

You can find out more about the Bamburgh Research Project by visiting our website www.bamburghresearchproject.co.uk and on Twitter @BRPArcheology

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Amazing early find at Bradford Kaims

This is a slightly delayed post about an extraordinary find that we made at the Bradford Kaims excavation towards the end of the Summer season. It has taken some time for us to work out the beginning of a strategy on dealing with it, so we delayed announcing the news for a while as a result.

 

Right at the end of the dig, which has revealed some very exciting preserved organic remains in the peat deposits to the immediate west of Trench 6, we uncovered a surprisingly well preserved timber paddle. It was lying just on top of a timber platform, formed from round wood lengths pegged into the underlying layers. The platform would have been exciting enough but the paddle is just outstanding. We think from parallels that it may be for moving the hot rocks of the burnt mound rather than paddling a canoe at the moment. Our best dating for it comes from its stratigraphic relationship with an archaeomagnetically dated hearth. This date is further supported by the presence of a substantial assemblage of Carinated Bowl pottery. Right at this moment we think the platform and paddle are very, very early Neolithic. Making it in the order of 6000 or more years old.

 

The paddle was obviously in a very fragile state and if left to dry out it would have been lost, so rescuing it from site once it was revealed was a priority. It was lifted in a block with the supporting deposits on the evening of the 28th July. It was not an easy job, in fact we did not make to the pub for a celebratory pint till after 9:00!

 

The paddle just before it it was lifted. What may be part of its handle lies detatched close by.

The paddle just before it it was lifted. What may be part of its handle lies detatched close by.


 
Supporting the block with, timber, cling film and expanding foam.

Supporting the block with, timber, cling film and expanding foam.

Ready to lift!

Ready to lift!


 

It is currently in safe storage at Edinburgh University, and we are very grateful for their help at rather short notice. The process of freeing the find from its protective covers will start soon and we will keep you posted on developments here. The timber platform, that supported the paddle, lay directly above burnt mound stones, so lifting it was problematic. We can only hope it was successful.

 

There is more news to come from the Kaims yet, so keep an eye out for further updates.

 

The first Article on the find has been written by Tony Henderson of the Journal.

 

http://www.thejournal.co.uk/news/north-east-news/bamburgh-archaeological-dig-unearths-stunning-6196560

 

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Pottery find from the Kaims

The latest pottery finds from Trench 6 (the first burnt mound) at the Kaims has proved to be very interesting. The two sherds were thought by Paul Gething (Kaims Director) to be of early Neolithic date, a date confirmed yesterday evening by Dr Clive Waddington during a site visit. Clive, of Archaeological Research Services, is is in the region as part of the the ‘Rescued from the Sea’ archaeological project, details of which can be found here: http://www.nwt.org.uk/rescued-from-the-sea

One of the sherds of pottery (scale at top, 8cm)

One of the sherds of pottery (scale at top, 8cm)

Tentatively then, it appears that upper layers of the burnt mound have produced Carinated Bowl of early fourth millennium BC date. The pottery was found just to the west of the stone ‘hearth’ feature that was dated to 4230 BC (+/- 235 yrs) by archaeomagnetic means by Sam Harris of Bradford University. It seems increasingly likely then, that the mound is very early in date, and all the more interesting as a result.

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Kaims Video update – Burnt mounds?

This is the latest video in our Bradford Kaims Wetland community heritage dig series. Last time we gave you coring, this time it’s all about the features. What exactly are we digging up? The sites themselves are remarkably well preserved and subtly different, and our excavations are revealing that the promontory identified by Richard Tipping’s coring was extensively used, with multiple sites of burned stones, intermittent pits and exciting results from the geophysics.

Sediment Speaks: A Day at the Kaims – Part 2

This post is a continuation of “A Day at the Kaims – Part 1“, and focuses on both the technical and experiential aspects of environmental coring at the Bradford Kaims wetland site.

Archaeological coring: how and why?

Matt Ross teaching BRP students how to describe core samples

The following has been written by Matt Ross, a graduate student currently researching at the Bradford Kaims. He’s also generously been teaching those interested and willing to brave the knee-high muddy bog water how to core and describe sediment samples in the field.

Anne, Matt, and Eva following a day of coring

Throughout the season a team of sediment corers have been braving the wet and mud that is the Bradford Kaims, to record the sediment that lies beneath.

Using a 6m long auger, as demonstrated by Richard Tipping in our earlier blog post, it is possible to extract sediment samples and compile a vertical stratigraphy. Repeating this along a transect, a cross-profile of the landscape can be constructed. By examining changes in sediment type, colour, composition and organic content (i.e. wood fragments, plant stems and calcareous shells) both vertically and laterally throughout the profile we can then piece together the history of environmental change across the site.

Matt and Anne with 5 metres of auger

Such changes occur over time in response to natural and/or anthropogenic forcing: examples include climate change or forest clearance for agriculture. As sediments are composed of material (and organisms) within the catchment, they accumulate vertically and, unless disturbed, will remain in chronological order. The rate of change is also indicated in the sediment profile.

Measuring the depths of various sediment layers–the empty sections mark the areas where we’ve removed sections to feel and analyze

For example, a unit of coarse sand with a sharp upper boundary may mark a rapid flood erosion event, whereas the accumulation of several metres of peat reflects relative climate stability over thousands of years. Sediment coring can therefore provide a rapid assessment of palaeoenvironmental conditions over vast areas. But why does it matter?

Establishing the past climatic conditions and landscape history can provide important context to understand prehistoric settlement at the site. For instance, if we know there was an open body of water during the time of occupation, we can assume that it may have been exploited.

Site exploitation: our burnt mound. Evidence of occupation and long-term site use, the mound is the likely the discarded build-up of shattered stones used for heating water. Click the photo for more information.

Coring at the Bradford Kaims has focused on the low-lying Embleton’s bog, where we have identified two open bodies of water, either side of the promontory, on which Trench 42 is located. These lakes appear to originate in the lateglacial, or the early Holocene (10,000 years ago) and have experienced fluctuating water levels, as indicated by bands of Marl – a lacustrine deposit of calcium carbonate rich mudstone. The lakes were then quickly succeeded by wetland conditions as the climate ameliorated.

Pollen analysis, currently being carried out at Stirling University, will provide detailed reconstruction of vegetation cover at the time of settlement.

The Kaims wetlands regressing into a lake state

Learning to Core 

After first break, Anne (a fellow BRP-er) and I joined Matt for a day of coring.  Knee-high grass lined the foot-flattened path to the most recent transect line where we would be coring. After hearing stories of thigh-high muddy water and the need to bring a complete change of clothes, I was pleasantly surprised to discover that the bog water only rose halfway up my knee-high wellies (though it did get deeper as we moved further south).

Matt and Anne in a slightly damper area

Our first core of the day–Core 4–was marked with a bamboo shaft sticking a few inches above a mud and water filled hole in a circle of flattened grass. It was decided that, to start, I would help Matt with the auger while Anne recorded the sediment changes for each metre core, since she had cored previously. Because we were continuing with a core sample from a previous day’s work, albeit at a greater depth, we had to “clean out” the infill of sediment and water in the hole, by coring to the same depth reached before.

Matt and Anne with 5m of auger

Let me tell you, finding the right hole amongst a half-dozen similar holes filled with muddy water and grass, and trying to fit the auger into it without creating a bigger hole, is no mean feat. I think we gave up on the old hole and made a new one after 3o minutes of struggle. We also never managed to get past the 4 meter depth at that particular spot. While we struggled though, Matt did give me a very nice introduction to the coring process and the geography of the Kaims.

Later in the day, Anne and I switched off and I got an opportunity to record the data. Richard Tipping joined us later in the afternoon and showed us the benefit of years of coring experience–he was almost quicker at setting up and adjusting the auger by himself, than Anne, Matt, and I were together. His equally quick assessment of the core samples was also impressive. 

Using a knife to clear away excess sediment and expose the core

I was surprised to learn how similar the process of coring is to the environmental archaeology and flotation I do here at the castle. It was vindicating that my description of the soil matrices, colours, and inclusions of the BRP environmental samples have been semi-accurate and that I’ve developed a somewhat transferable skill. 

By the end of the work day, we had completed an additional 3 cores to a depth of 6m each. The cores themselves showed a variety of sediment layers including peats, peaty clays, sandy clays, sandy silts, silty sands, and marl. The marl was a creamy to light grey very soft clay. Never having heard of it or encountered it before, I looked it up. Apparently, marl is a “calcium carbonate or lime-rich mud containing large amounts of clays or silts”, and is formed under freshwater conditions.

An example of marl from Urswick Tarn, similar to what we found at the Bradford Kaims

It’s interesting, not only because it was the most markedly different in appearance, but because its presence indicates a period of fairly rapid climate or landscape change–warming or deforestation–and rise in water levels.

Other things we noted in the core samples included the presence and relative quantities–very rare, rare, common, abundant–of wiry and fleshy stems, wood fragments (incl. size), whole shells and shell fragments. I found it interesting that there was significantly more variation in the cores to the north, even at less depth, than there were to the south. For instance, between 3 and 4 metres at Core 4, we encountered maybe 6 or 7 distinct changes in matrices. At the same level in Core 6, the sample was almost entirely a mid-reddish brown silty peat.  Despite this, Matt suggested that all the core results were fairly consistent with what they expected (and hoped) to find.

Last, but not least, for your and my enjoyment:

       

I would love to see a final report of the results, to see how my work was used. I would also like to thank Matt for his wonderful demonstration of coring methods and techniques as well as an illuminating explanation of some of the recent environmental findings. 

— Megan Taylor

“I personally thought it was a great (if not slightly wet) and informative experience, and even though I will probably be sore for the next few days, I can definitely recommend splashing around in the wetlands for a day!”

–Anne Hartog

A Day at the Kaims – Part 1

The following is a report from my day at the Kaims… it’s taken me a while to get it posted.

Last week, I heard Matt Ross was looking for coring volunteers. I’d never done coring before and knew very little about the process or it’s archaeological potential. Keen to try my hand at something new and archaeologically relevant, I decided to take a day off Environmental and escape to the Kaims. After a week of rain, we had a day of sunshine and almost-blue skies. It was amazing. In the morning, they even let me have a go at trowelling in the west extension of Trench 42—it’s been so long since I’ve done actual archaeology. (I may have been a bit overzealous and taken out a few more stones than necessary… sorry, Graham).

Walking down to the trenches at the Kaims

To begin, I was extremely impressed with the archaeology at the Kaims. I, along with the other new students, got a site tour from Jackie, the Kaims Assistant Supervisor, first thing in the morning.

The last time I was at the Kaims, was in June 2011. Trench 6 had been opened and expanded to reveal a large burning area, possible hearth, and post-hole. Victorian era drainage pipes were being found and excavated. And the whole area didn’t look like a bog, though I admit to having to stand in a few inches of water to attempt a section drawing.

This is what it looked like when excavation of the Kaims began in 2010.

What a typical trench at the Kaims used to look like – a 1 m x 2 m rectangle.

First Kaims Supervisor Joanne Kirton teaching students how to test pit

What we once thought was interesting archaeology

This is the Kaims now. That’s progress.

Part of Trench 42, originally 20 m x 2 m. (It continues both to the north and west off the photo).

Community diggers excavating Trench 6 in the off-season

The archaeological features that have appeared this season are enough to satisfy the appetite of all you prehistoric archaeologists–a burnt mound reminiscent of others found across the UK and Ireland and what was originally hoped was a cist burial.

Kaims Supervisor and Director standing at the edge of T42 – note the sharp boundary at the south edge of the burnt mound.

Recent theories as to origins/purpose of the burnt mound and surrounding area: cist burial , beer production site, fish drying site, tanning site, sweat lodge, cooking area.

An extension was made to the east of trench 42 to allow for a pit to be dug to explore the theory that the large worked stone that was uncovered in T42 might be a stone slab/head stone of a Bronze Age cist burial.

West extension of T42 – edge of burnt mound not yet uncovered

The extention has revealed one edge of the burnt-stones area, but as of yet, there is no compelling evidence of a burial in that direction. Could it possibly be under the stones to the west?

Sarah attempting to find the edge and base of the test pit in T42

When I was up there on Friday, Sarah Aguirre was continuing the excavation of the long, thin sondage/test pit in the east quadrant of T42—next to the stone slab. The work revealed a series of stones, but no burial as originally hoped.

Meanwhile, Eva Rankmore was excavating a pit feature in the northern part of the trench. As of yet, it’s unclear whether the pit is natural or man made, though the most recent (and mostly likely) theory is that it’s a tree throw.

Eva in her possible pit feature (the north part of T42)

Nearby, in the area to the SE of T42, students new to the Kaims were taught how to set up and excavate test pits in the hopes of uncovering the cluster of possible burials. As of today (Thurs. July 19), 10 new test pits have been put in, and nothing particularly archaeologically exciting had been uncovered. However, two of the test pits did reveal a continuation of the modern (Victorian era) drainage feature, evident—although the terracotta pipes had been removed at some point—in the south end of T42.

Opening test pits and new trenches at the Kaims

Other than excavating what I feel is some very promising/intriguing archaeological features, a number of interesting finds have also been found this season – A piece of prehistoric (Bronze Age?) ceramic. A beautiful little flint point (likely an arrowhead). A lot of what is believed to be un-worked jet.

BK12 (4209) <92> Prehistoric pottery (Bronze Age?)

Same piece of pottery in profile

BK12 (4202) <054> Flint blade

Same blade in profile

BK12 (4202) <048> Flint arrowhead

Same point in profie

BK12 (6020) <019> Raw jet?

That was somewhat my morning at the Kaims. I hope you enjoyed it. Tomorrow’s blog post will continue my insider’s view of a day at the Kaims, accompanied by a more technical explanation of the coring process provided by Matt Ross. A more detailed summary of this season’s work at the Kaims will also be forthcoming.

If any of you readers have any questions for the Kaim-anites about any of the archaeology or finds coming out, feel free to post to the blog or our facebook page. We’re more than happy to answer your questions to the best of our abilities.

Coming up – Part 2: Coring at the Kaims, with Matt Ross

Winter Lecture Part 2: The Bradford Kaims

Kristian Pedersen of Edinburgh University has been working alongside the Bamburgh Research Project on the Bradford Kaims Wetland Heritage Research Project.

In this video he provides local residents with an overview of the site and the work carried out during the 2010 and 2011 dig season.

For further information and updates about the project, click on bradford kaims in the Tag Cloud to the right of the screen.

Field Work Update for the Bradford Kaims

Project Director, Graeme Young, gives us an update on the recent work undertaken at our Mesolithic/Neolithic site out at Hoppen Hall, near the Bradford Kaims.

In our last few visits to the site at Hoppen Hall near the Bradford Kaims, we have continued the work that has been ongoing for the last couple of years around the ‘hearth’ feature. We are hoping to increase our understanding of this enigmatic feature dated to 4000 to 4500 BC by archaeomagnetic dating. Just what it represents, and how it fits into the wider landscape still alludes us. I hope that through widening the area of excavation and sheer persistence  that this will work wonders. Click here to read an overview of past work at the site

The Aerial photography undertaken by  Horizon has been particularly useful. We always thought that this birds eye perspective would provide us with some great shots for publication, but it is surprising how much this change of perspective helps in seeing the bigger picture and how the individual components fit into a wider story. We know that the site lay close to the edge of a narrow channel, but it is apparent now that even to the south where the channel opens out we have a complicated picture including two separate bays. It must surely in the distant past, when there was still substantial open water, have been a prime area for attracting animals and perhaps for fishing too. Easier to see, therefore, why we have such clear indication of human activity. Albeit activity we are struggling to understand. Click here to see the results of Horizon AP’s most recent work for the project.

Initially we have been cleaning and planning, with the intention of better understanding the stratigraphy (the sequence of layers and features that tell the story of the order of events) so that we can hopefully understand the role that the site played when it was in use. Why for instance is there so much charcoal and burnt material here? Is this material waste material from a process that involved fires set on our burnt stone surface that they overlie. Or is there a substantial distance in time between them, if not a distance in space? We have also uncovered the presence of at least one substantial pit and are perhaps seeing traces of others too. If this is the case we can also ask if we are looking at a structure or further waste disposal.

The extension of the site to the south, cleaned up to show the extent of the burnt material in this direction.

Cleaning back towards the stone feature (seen behind the trowellers) has revealed at least one substantial pit. Planning of the trench extension is under way in the background.

Over the next few weeks we will be pursuing these inquiries and also opening a new trench down into the peat layers, that lie only metres to the west of the burnt stone surface. Hopefully finding evidence of material disposed of in the lake will add to our understanding of the site’s use.

Watch this space for updates.

If you are interested in getting involved with the project Click here for more information