End of an era as Trench 1 at Bamburgh Castle closes (1999 to 2017)

Long long ago (in a different century) we first opened Trench 1 at Bamburgh Castle. It was the Bamburgh Research Project’s first ever trench within the castle as our previous work had been centred on the Bowl Hole burial ground and desk based research. Its end has been predicted for a couple of seasons now, but each year more post-holes and features seemed to weather out and become visible, frustrating our plans to close the trench. This year though we dealt with the last few of those and even further investigated the glacial deposits at the base just to be certain that nothing lay hidden. We have officially closed the trench and it is under semipermeable membranes waiting for backfilling.

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Some Trench 1 staff from present and past were there for the last day. Left to right- Constance Durgeat, Alex Stevens, Marsaili Heatley, Graham Dixon and Graeme Young. Former supervisors not pictured: Graeme Attwood, Neal Lythe, Phil Wood, Matthew Claydon.

Some of the earliest features have been the most difficult to identify and interpret, cut into boulder clay and often having a fill very close to the surrounding natural in both colour and composition. At this lower level the site resembles a moonscape with craters cutting craters. A definite challenge for our continued interpretation during post-excavation.

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We made a list of the senior staff from the trench for a time capsule

There will be many more blogs on the trench in the future as we work to write it up and publish it but today I thought I would post a few early photos as contrast to the trench today. Many thanks to all of the supervisors, assistant supervisors, and hundreds of students who worked in trench one over the years.

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A junior Trench 1 from 2001, a small version of what it became!

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Part way through the high medieval sequence with the consuction cut for the early 20th century wall on the right

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A thanks to the many students who worked hard and recorded diligently over many years

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The last days of the trench with sondages across the boulder clay – just in case!

3-Dimensional artefact location mapping in Trench 3, Bamburgh Castle

Ryan Leckel, undergraduate student of the Applied Social Science Department at University of Wisconsin-Stout, has received a grant of more than $2,000.00 to help with his pilot study in 3-dimensional visualisation of small find locations in Trench 3 at Bamburgh Castle. The study will gather and input data from the site records in order to produce a 3-D model of the site in which the distribution of the finds can be visualised alongside the trench plans. It is hoped this will prove an invaluable tool for identifying patterns of finds on the site and greatly aid interpretation. One of the trickier aspects of such analysis will be asking the right questions of the model.

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Trench 3 Excavation

It is great to see staff and students wanting to work on project data so we are delighted that this is just one such ongoing project. We are really looking forward to this collaboration in the weeks ahead and we will update you as the work progresses- hopefully with some really nice images.

Bookings to join us on the excavation are still open, though some weeks are getting close to being full, so we would encourage anyone still thinking of joining us this summer to get in touch soon.

Click here to go to the booking page.

 

Introduction to Environmental Processing

In this video Thomas Fox, Environmental Assistant Supervisor, discusses the process of environmental sampling and what we can learn from it.

 

Stay tuned for further videos and updates here and on our YouTube Channel as the season progresses!

Another week in the Finds Department

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The Windmill during a brief respite from the rain.

Good morning from the post-excavation department! We have had a busy few weeks processing some intriguing finds including a possible iron stylus, a worked stone bead, several bits of unidentified burnt clay discs, and a potential lead pendant, to name a few.

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Finds Illustration

Environmental supervisor Thomas Fox has kept our students engaged at the flot tank processing environmental samples from last year while Post-ex supervisor Jeff Aldrich has been taking advantage of the poor weather to give students the a chance to illustrate and process our finds.

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Students Katie and Kelly sorting environmental flotation samples.

The students have also had the opportunity to learn a bit of post-excavation from Bradford Kaims processing finds, including a plethora of worked wooden stakes and the resultant paperwork led by trench supervisor Becky Brummet. Because of its distance from civilisation, it is a separate process at each site: the Castle and the Kaims.

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Students Joe and Rachel filling out timber recording sheets.

With the sun shining and the winds calmer, the students and staff will have ample time in the trenches to find us some new artefacts, hopefully further fleshing out the story of Bamburgh Castle.

New article on our excavations at Bamburgh Castle

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The windmill office in the West Ward, between our two excavation trenches

Archaeology, the magazine of the Archaeological Institute of American has published an article on our excavation work at Bamburgh Castle. It is available online here:

Stronghold of the Kings of the North

 

Some weeks starting to fill up!

We still have places available for our archaeology field school this summer. However there are a few weeks that are starting to fill up so book soon to avoid disappointment!

No experience necessary! Our training is open to all people over the age of 12 (parent supervision required under the age of 16).

Apply here:

http://bamburghresearchproject.co.uk/?page_id=1027

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Research into the Bamburgh Castle animal bone

Our blog has been quite quiet over the winter but behind the scenes we have actually been rather busy, making plans and working towards what we think is an exciting future for the project.

One area we have been working on is the analysis, interpretation and publication of the extensive Bamburgh Castle, West Ward excavations. Work here started in 1960 when Dr Brian Hope-Taylor opened his first trial trench and continued when he returned to the site in 1970, excavating each summer until 1974. Sadly he was never able to complete or publish his work and we rather inherited this work when we began our own investigation in the West Ward in 2000. It will be some time in the future before we approach bedrock, but a we are now close to joining up with the Hope-Taylor excavation and the time has come for a major post excavation effort. Its a daunting body of archaeological research but has the potential to hugely enhance our understanding of this amazing site, so its research and publication is a big priority over the next few years.

We will need a number of academic partners to aid us in our research and we are delighted that students and staff at the Archaeology department of Nottingham University, led by Dr Naomi Sykes are currently assessing numerous boxes of animal bone from the West Ward.

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Busy at work sorting and identifying!

This is the first of what we intend to be a number of exciting partnerships that will enable a full understanding of the site.

Archaeology Basics Video Series: The Mattock

Here is the second in our archaeology basics series filmed and edited by the students from Ashington Learning Partnership. To see the first video in the series (The Trowel) and hear the story of the students involvement in media click here. Enjoy!

Hammerscale Sampling and Thin Sectioning in Trench 3

In the past two weeks, apart from the usual excavation and recording process, Trench 3 did a number of hammerscale samples and two thin-sections, which is quite exciting! Today’s blog is all about elaborating on these processes, so that we may get more insight into different elements of archaeology.


Hammerscale Sampling

Hammerscale sampling is used to find out if a certain area of the trench was used for metalworking purposes. Last week we carried out a small number of hammerscale samples within the borders of our large timber building to see it it has been used for any metalworking.

Hammerscale is created when a blacksmith hammers iron; the sparks that fly off are actually tiny pieces of iron oxide that are only a couple of millimeters in size.

When we take hammerscale samples, we take a planning frame of 1x1m, which is divided into 25 smaller squares of 20x20cm. We then take small samples from each of these little squares. The hammerscale, hard to see with the naked eye, is magnetic, so when we run a magnet through each individual sample, any present hammerscale material will stick to the magnet, which is exactly what we want.

Hammerscale sampling

Hammerscale sampling

When labeling the bags we need to be mindful of the coordinates of each individual sample. We gather this information so that when the samples are processed we can relate them to their position in the trench to see how the concentrations of hammerscale fluctuate throughout the area. In some cases plotting out the hammerscale concentrations can result in a so-called ‘blacksmith’s shadow’; a negative shadow where the concentration of hammerscale is low because that is where the blacksmith was working from, sweeping the hammerscale off the anvil, resulting in a high-concentrated cone-shaped ‘shadow’ forming around the blacksmith.

In our case, we dare not hope to find anything halfway as exciting as a blacksmith’s shadow (though we can always dream!), but finding evidence of hammerscale in our samples would give us some well-needed clues as to what the function of our timber-building might have been.


Thin sections

At the end of week 5, Graeme Young led Trench 3’s staff and students alike in putting in two thin-sections in one of our World War I test latrine pits.

Trench 3 has three WWI practice latrine pits. While it is quite sad that the archaeology in these parts of the trench has been destroyed, it does give us a nice little sneak peek of what we will be excavating in future seasons.

While we as archaeologists can quite clearly see differences in contexts and different occupation layers, there is only so much we can see with the naked eye. While a context can seem fairly homogeneous to us, it may potentially consist of many single events that we are unaware of.

This is where the thin-section comes in. We take a simple metal box, and after preparing the section by cutting it completely vertical, hammer the box into the section.

Preparing the section for the thin-section sample, showing off some beautiful stratigraphy

Preparing the section for the thin-section sample, showing off some beautiful stratigraphy

Removing the thin-section box from the section.

Removing the thin-section box from the section.

After getting the X, Y, and Z coordinates using the Total Station, we then carefully spade it out and wrap the metal box, now containing a nice sample of the vertical stratigraphy, into several layers of cling film, securing the sample into place and making sure it doesn’t get contaminated.

Two succesful thin-section samples

Two successful thin-section samples

The sample is then sent off to the laboratory, where they set the sample with resin, and cut off a thin slice of the sample, which they then study under a microscope. An ash layer which up until then might have been interpreted as a single event may turn out to be dozens of smaller single events!

In Trench 3 we took two samples, slightly overlapping, so that we end up with around 20cm of continuous stratigraphy. The section we have sampled is from the industrial occupation of the trench, potentially spanning a time frame of around a hundred years.

If all goes well, both of these excavation techniques should provide us with some exciting new insights into the function of our timber building and the yet-to-be excavated archaeology in our trench!